Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Versus Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Agents After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2024 Feb 12;17(3):405-418. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2023.11.038.


Background: Studies comparing long-term outcomes between non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulant agents (direct oral anticoagulant agents [DOACs]) and VKA anticoagulant agents after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are scarce, with conflicting results.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the periprocedural, short-term, and long-term safety and effectiveness of DOACs vs VKAs in patients undergoing TAVR via femoral access with concomitant indications for oral anticoagulation.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR in the prospective national SwissTAVI Registry between February 2011 and June 2021 were analyzed. Net clinical benefit (a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and life-threatening or major bleeding) and the primary safety endpoint (a composite of life-threatening and major bleeding) were compared between the VKA and DOAC groups at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years after TAVR.

Results: After 1:1 propensity score matching, 1,454 patients were available for analysis in each group. There was no significant difference in the rate of the net clinical benefit and the safety endpoints between the groups as assessed at 30 days and 1 and 5 years post-TAVR between VKAs and DOACs. VKAs were associated with significantly higher rates of 1- year (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and 5-year (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.11-1.40) all-cause mortality. Long-term risk for disabling stroke was significantly lower in the VKA group after excluding periprocedural events (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.90).

Conclusions: At 5 years after TAVR, VKAs are associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality, a lower risk for disabling stroke, and a similar rate of life-threatening or major bleeding compared with DOACs. (SwissTAVI Registry; NCT01368250).

Keywords: aortic valve stenosis; non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant; oral anticoagulation; transcatheter aortic valve replacement; vitamin K antagonist.

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects
  • Aortic Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / complications
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Hemorrhage / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Prospective Studies
  • Stroke* / etiology
  • Stroke* / prevention & control
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin K


  • Anticoagulants
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Vitamin K

Associated data