Clinical evaluation of chitosan/polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds releasing tetracycline hydrochloride in periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis

J Adv Periodontol Implant Dent. 2023 Dec 3;15(2):74-79. doi: 10.34172/japid.2023.023. eCollection 2023.


Background: The role of bacteria in the initiation and progression of periodontitis has led to a great interest in using antibiotics to suppress pathogenic microbiota. Considering the drawbacks of systemic antibiotics' application, local delivery systems directly in the periodontal pocket can be helpful. Therefore, the effect of an efficient tetracycline-loaded delivery system was investigated on the clinical parameters of periodontitis.

Methods: In this clinical trial with a split-mouth design, 10 patients with periodontitis with pocket depths≥5 mm were included. After scaling and root planing (SRP) for all the patients, one side of the mouth was randomly considered as the control group, and on the other side, chitosan/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous films containing tetracycline (5%) were placed in pockets of 5 mm and deeper. Clinical measurements of pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) indices were made at the beginning and after 8 weeks of intervention. PPD, CAL, and BOP parameters were compared between the control and test groups before and after the intervention with paired t tests using SPSS 24. The significance level of the tests was considered at P<0.05.

Results: The mean PPD, CAL, and BOP in both the control (SRP) and test (LDDs) groups decreased after 8 weeks. A significant difference was detected in reducing PPD, BOP, and CAL after 8 weeks in 5-mm pockets, and the mean values were higher in the test group than in the control (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The local drug delivery system using chitosan/PCL nanofibrous films containing tetracycline can effectively control periodontal diseases by reducing pocket depth and inflammation and improving CAL without offering side effects, although further evaluations are needed.

Keywords: Local drug delivery; Nanofibrous films; Periodontal pocket; Periodontitis.