Comparative evaluation of mouthwashes containing propolis and chlorhexidine for controlling inflammation resulting from plaque accumulation in patients with chronic gingivitis

J Adv Periodontol Implant Dent. 2023 Aug 29;15(2):123-127. doi: 10.34172/japid.2023.014. eCollection 2023.


Background: Limited data are available on the effect of mouthwashes containing Iranian propolis on plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) in patients with chronic gingivitis. The present study compared the effects of propolis and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwashes in patients with chronic gingivitis due to plaque accumulation.

Methods: In the present interventional study, 28 patients 18‒50 years of age with generalized chronic gingivitis were assigned to two groups (n=14). Periodontal parameters, including PI and GI, were determined in all the subjects at baseline. Groups A and B received CHX and propolis mouthwashes, respectively. All the subjects used the mouthwashes for two weeks. Then all the parameters were evaluated gain. Independent t-test was used to compare the periodontal parameters between the two groups. Paired t-test was used for intra-group comparisons. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05.

Results: Two weeks after using the mouthwashes, the mean PI in the CHX group (21.71±1.63) was significantly lower than that in the propolis group (33.91±5.96). However, the mean PI and GI in the propolis group decreased significantly compared to the baseline (P=0.00).

Conclusion: Propolis significantly decreased the mean plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with chronic gingivitis. Although the reduction in PI in the propolis group was a little less than in the CHX group, the efficacy of propolis in reducing GI was comparable to CHX.

Keywords: Dental plaque; Gingival index; Gingivitis; Inflammation; Propolis.