Different aspects of failing to recover from proactive semantic interference predicts rate of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia

Front Aging Neurosci. 2024 Jan 31:16:1336008. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2024.1336008. eCollection 2024.


Introduction: This study investigated the role of proactive semantic interference (frPSI) in predicting the progression of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) to dementia, taking into account various cognitive and biological factors.

Methods: The research involved 89 older adults with aMCI who underwent baseline assessments, including amyloid PET and MRI scans, and were followed longitudinally over a period ranging from 12 to 55 months (average 26.05 months).

Results: The findings revealed that more than 30% of the participants diagnosed with aMCI progressed to dementia during the observation period. Using Cox Proportional Hazards modeling and adjusting for demographic factors, global cognitive function, hippocampal volume, and amyloid positivity, two distinct aspects of frPSI were identified as significant predictors of a faster decline to dementia. These aspects were fewer correct responses on a frPSI trial and a higher number of semantic intrusion errors on the same trial, with 29.5% and 31.6 % increases in the likelihood of more rapid progression to dementia, respectively.

Discussion: These findings after adjustment for demographic and biological markers of Alzheimer's Disease, suggest that assessing frPSI may offer valuable insights into the risk of dementia progression in individuals with aMCI.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s dementia progression; LASSI-L; amyloid imaging; mild cognitive impairment; proactive semantic interference; structural MRI.