Advancements in 3D-printed artificial tendon

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2024 Feb;112(2):e35364. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.35364.


Millions of people have been reported with tendon injuries each year. Unfortunately, Tendon injuries are increasing rapidly due to heavy exercise and a highly aging population. In addition, the introduction of 3D-printing technology in the area of tendon repair and replacement has resolved numerous issues and significantly improved the quality of artificial tendons. This advancement has also enabled us to explore and identify the most effective combinations of biomaterials that can be utilized in this field. This review discusses the recent development of the 3D-printed artificial tendon; where recently, some research investigated the most suitable pore sizes, diameter, and strength for scaffolds to have high tendon cells ingrowth and proliferation, giving a better understanding of the effects of densities and structure patterns on tendon's mechanical properties. In addition, it presents the divergence between 3D-printed tendons and other tissue and how the different 3D-printing techniques and models participated in this development.

Keywords: 3D-artificial tendon; 3D-printing techniques; biological materials; extrusion bio-printing; tendon scaffolds.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Humans
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Tendon Injuries*
  • Tendons
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Tissue Scaffolds* / chemistry


  • Biocompatible Materials