Inverse Association between the Global Diet Quality Score and New-Onset Hypertension in Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study

J Nutr. 2024 Apr;154(4):1252-1261. doi: 10.1016/j.tjnut.2024.02.008. Epub 2024 Feb 13.

Abstract

Background: The Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) is a simple and practical dietary metric associated with a number of chronic diseases. The GDQS included various foods related to blood pressure, especially diverse plant-based foods that have shown to lower blood pressure. However, studies on the role of the GDQS in reducing the risk of new-onset hypertension and whether its performance differs from that of other dietary metrics are lacking.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association between the GDQS and new-onset hypertension and to compare its performance with that of other dietary patterns, including the Plant-based Diet Index (PDI), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score in Chinese adults.

Methods: We included a total of 12,002 participants (5644 males and 6358 females) aged >18 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1997-2015). Dietary intake was estimated using average food intakes from 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) were computed for hypertension using modified Poisson regression models.

Results: With ≤18 y of follow-up (mean 8.7± 5.4 y), we ascertained 4232 incident cases of hypertension. Compared with participants with a low GDQS score (<15), the multivariable-adjusted RR of hypertension was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.83] among participants with a high score (≥23). A 25% increment in the GDQS was associated with a 30% (RR, 0.70; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.76) lower risk of new-onset hypertension, which was comparable with the RRs of new-onset hypertension associated with every 25% increment in the PDI (RR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.93), DASH score (RR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91), and aMED score (RR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93).

Conclusion: A higher GDQS was associated with a lower risk of new-onset hypertension, with comparable associations of new-onset hypertension with PDI, DASH, and aMED scores in Chinese adults.

Keywords: Chinese adults; GDQS; diet metrics; diet quality; hypertension.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet
  • Diet, Healthy
  • Diet, Mediterranean*
  • Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Hypertension* / etiology
  • Male