Measurement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity by a simplified Geneva cocktail approach in a cohort of free-living individuals: a pilot study

Front Pharmacol. 2024 Feb 2:15:1232595. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2024.1232595. eCollection 2024.


Introduction: The cytochrome P450 enzyme subfamilies, including CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, have a major role in metabolism of a range of drugs including several anti-cancer treatments. Many factors including environmental exposures, diet, diseaserelated systemic inflammation and certain genetic polymorphisms can impact the activity level of these enzymes. As a result, the net activity of each enzyme subfamily can vary widely between individuals and in the same individual over time. This variability has potential major implications for treatment efficacy and risk of drug toxicity, but currently no assays are available for routine use to guide clinical decision-making. Methods: To address this, a mass spectrometry-based method to measure activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2 was adapted and tested in free-living participants. The assay results were compared with the predicted activity of each enzyme, based on a self-report tool capturing diet, medication, chronic disease state, and tobacco usage. In addition, a feasibility test was performed using a low-volume dried blood spots (DBS) on two different filter-paper supports, to determine if the same assay could be deployed without the need for repeated standard blood tests. Results: The results confirmed the methodology is safe and feasible to perform in free-living participants using midazolam and caffeine as test substrates for CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 respectively. Furthermore, though similar methods were previously shown to be compatible with the DBS format, the assay can also be performed successfully while incorporating glucuronidase treatment into the DBS approach. The measured CYP3A4 activity score varied 2.6-fold across participants and correlated with predicted activity score obtained with the self-report tool. The measured CYP1A2 activity varied 3.5-fold between participants but no correlation with predicted activity from the self-report tool was found. Discussion: The results confirm the wide variation in CYP activity between individuals and the important role of diet and other exposures in determining CYP3A4 activity. This methodology shows great potential and future cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using DBS are warranted to determine how best to use the assay results to guide drug treatments.

Keywords: Geneva cocktail; adverse drug reaction; cytochrome P450; drug-drug interaction; personalized medicine; pharmacokinetics; precision dosing; precision oncology.

Grants and funding

Graduate research funding for CS was provided by the Fonds De Recherche Du Québec—Santé (FRQS #254160) and the Faculty of Medicine, McGill University (Max Binz Fellowship, Charles James Patton, M.D., and Elizabeth Ross Patton Memorial Prize). NM was supported by a studentship from the Peter Brojde Lung Cancer Centre.