Age-dependent association of central blood pressure with cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study involving 34 289 participants using the UK biobank

J Hypertens. 2024 May 1;42(5):769-776. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003675. Epub 2024 Feb 12.

Abstract

Background: It remained unclear whether central blood pressures (BP) was more closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than brachial BP in different age groups.

Objectives: To investigate the age-stratified association of CVD with brachial and central BPs, and to evaluate corresponding improvement in model performance.

Methods: This cohort study included 34 289 adults without baseline CVD from the UK Biobank dataset. Participants were categorized into middle-aged and older aged groups using the cut-off of age 65 years. The primary endpoint was a composite cardiovascular outcome consisting of cardiovascular mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure and stroke. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios expressed CVD risks associated with BP increments of 10 mmHg. Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) was used for model comparisons.

Results: In both groups, CVD events were associated with brachial or central SBP ( P ≤ 0.002). Model fit was better for central SBP in middle-aged adults (AIC 4427.2 vs. 4429.5), but model fit was better for brachial SBP in older adults (AIC 10 246.7 vs. 10 247.1). Central SBP remained significantly associated to CVD events [hazard ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.1] and improved model fit (AIC = 4426.6) after adjustment of brachial SBP only in the middle-aged adults. These results were consistent for pulse pressure (PP).

Conclusion: In middle-aged adults, higher central BPs were associated with greater risks of CVD events, even after adjusting for brachial BP indexes. For older adults, the superiority of central BP was not observed. Additional trials with adequate follow-up time will confirm the role of central BP in estimating CVD risk for middle-aged individuals.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biological Specimen Banks
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • UK Biobank