Differences in dietary acceptability, restraint, disinhibition, and hunger among African American participants randomized to either a vegan or omnivorous soul food diet

Appetite. 2024 May 1:196:107280. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2024.107280. Epub 2024 Feb 17.


The Nutritious Eating with Soul study was a 24-month, randomized behavioral nutrition intervention among African American adults. This present study, which is a secondary analysis of the NEW Soul study, examined changes in dietary acceptability, restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. Participants (n = 159; 79% female, 74% with ≥ college degree, mean age 48.4 y) were randomized to either a soul food vegan (n = 77) or soul food omnivorous (n = 82) diet and participated in a two-year behavioral nutrition intervention. Questionnaires assessing dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire; FAQ) and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; TFEQ) were completed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Mixed models were specified with main effects (group and time) and interaction effects (group by time) to estimate mean differences in FAQ and TFEQ scores using intent-to-treat analysis. After adjusting for employment, education, food security status, sex, and age, there were no differences in any of the FAQ items, total FAQ score, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger at any timepoint except for one item of the FAQ at 12 months. Participants in the vegan group reported a greater increase in satisfaction after eating a meal than the omnivorous group (mean difference 0.80 ± 0.32, 95% CI 0.18, 1.42; P = 0.01). This is one of the first studies to examine differences in dietary acceptability, hunger, and other eating factors among African American adults randomized to either a vegan or omnivorous soul food diet. The findings highlight that plant-based eating styles are equally acceptable to omnivorous eating patterns and have similar changes in hunger, restraint, and disinhibition. These results suggest that plant-based eating styles can be an acceptable dietary pattern to recommend for cardiovascular disease prevention and may result in greater post-meal satisfaction.

Keywords: African American; Dietary acceptability; Dietary restraint; Disinhibition; Hunger; Vegan.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Black or African American
  • Diet
  • Diet, Vegan
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Humans
  • Hunger* / physiology
  • Infant
  • Middle Aged
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vegans*