Is dependent cannabis use in adult hospitalizations with inflammatory bowel disease associated with major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events? Insights from National Inpatient Sample Analysis

Curr Med Res Opin. 2024 Apr;40(4):605-611. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2024.2321328. Epub 2024 Mar 8.


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and dependent cannabis use or cannabis use disorder (CUD+) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Usage of cannabis for pain increased in IBD patients. However, associated cardiovascular safety remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) associated with CUD + in hospitalized IBD patients.

Methods: We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample 2020 using ICD-10-CM codes; hospitalized IBD patients were identified and divided based on CUD's presence or absence. Multivariable regression models were performed to evaluate MACCE [in-hospital mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac arrest (CA), and acute ischemic stroke (AIS)] odds after adjusting for baseline demographics, hospital-level characteristics, and relevant cardiac/extra-cardiac morbidities.

Results: Among the 302,770 hospitalized adult IBD patients, 3.1% (9,490) had CUD+. The majority of patients in the CUD + cohort were white (67.7%), male (57.5%), and aged between 18 and 44 years (66.2%). Cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and prior myocardial infarction were higher in the CUD - cohort (p <0.001) compared to the CUD + cohort. The CUD + cohort had a lower rate of MACCE (3.1% vs. 5.8%), crude in-hospital mortality (0.7% vs. 2.2%), AMI (1.7% vs. 2.6%), CA (0.3% vs. 0.7%), and AIS (0.6% vs. 1.2%) with statistical significance (p <0.001). However, after adjusting for baseline characteristics and comorbidities, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) did not show a statistically significant difference for MACCE (aOR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.65-1.25, p = 0.530), CA (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.2-1.47, p = 0.227), and AIS (aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.43-1.73, p = 0.669).

Conclusion: Our study did not find a statistically significant difference in MACCE among hospitalized IBD patients with and without CUD. This emphasizes the need for more extensive prospective studies focusing on the quantity, method, and duration of cannabis use (recreational or medicinal) in patients with IBD.

Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; acute ischemic stroke; acute myocardial infarction; cannabis use disorder; cardiac arrest; dependent cannabis usage; major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cannabis*
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / complications
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Inpatients
  • Ischemic Stroke* / complications
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction* / complications
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult