Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment for Accelerating Rehydration of Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Apr 28;34(4):846-853. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2401.01004. Epub 2024 Feb 12.


Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), which provides plant-based proteins and functional substances, requires a long soaking time during processing, which limits its usefulness to industries and consumers. To improve this, ultrasonic treatment using high pressure and shear force was judged to be an appropriate pretreatment method. This study aimed to determine the optimal conditions of ultrasound treatment for the improved hydration of adzuki beans using the response surface methodology (RSM). Independent variables chosen to regulate the hydration process of the adzuki beans were the soaking time (2-14 h, X1), treatment intensity (150-750 W, X2), and treatment time (1-10 min, X3). Dependent variables chosen to assess the differences in the beans post-immersion were moisture content, water activity, and hardness. The optimal conditions for treatment deduced through RSM were a soaking time of 12.9 h, treatment intensity of 600 W, and treatment time of 8.65 min. In this optimal condition, the values predicted for the dependent variables were a moisture content of 58.32%, water activity of 0.9979 aw, and hardness of 14.63 N. Upon experimentation, the results obtained were a moisture content of 58.28 ± 0.56%, water activity of 0.9885 ± 0.0040 aw, and hardness of 13.01 ± 2.82 g, confirming results similar to the predicted values. Proper ultrasound treatment caused cracks in the hilum, which greatly affects the water absorption of adzuki beans, accelerating the rate of hydration. These results are expected to help determine economically efficient processing conditions for specific purposes, in addition to solving industrial problems associated with the low hydration rate of adzuki beans.

Keywords: Adzuki bean; increased water absorption; optimal processing condition; response surface methodology; sonication pre-treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Fabaceae / chemistry
  • Food Handling* / methods
  • Hardness
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonic Waves
  • Ultrasonics
  • Vigna* / chemistry
  • Water* / chemistry


  • Water