Factors influencing self-efficacy for self-management among adult people with human immune deficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy in public hospitals of south-west Ethiopia

Front Psychol. 2024 Feb 6:15:1329238. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2024.1329238. eCollection 2024.

Abstract

Introduction: Self-management is crucial for effective HIV management, and self-efficacy is a mechanism for achieving it, but there is limited evidence on variables that affect self-efficacy. This study aimed to identify factors influencing self-efficacy for self-management among adults on antiretroviral therapy in resource constraint settings.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adult people on antiretroviral therapy in southwest Ethiopia from March to April 2022. Face-to-face interviews were used to gather data using a structured questionnaire on the self-efficacy measure. The data were then imported into Epi Data version 4.2 and exported to SPSS version 26. Descriptive statistics, independent tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze the data. The predictors with p-value of less than 0.05 were declared statistically significant.

Results: A total of 413 adults on antiretroviral therapy were interviewed with response rate of 97.9%. The total mean score of self-efficacy for self-management was 15.12 (±2.22) out of 24. Higher age, gender of the female, divorced, duration of diagnosis, and drug side effects were negatively predictors of low self-efficacy. Higher schooling, urban residence, better income, and the use of reminders positively influenced self-efficacy for self-management.

Conclusion: The study found low self-efficacy among adults on antiretroviral therapy and higher age, female gender, HIV duration, and presence of drug side effects were associated with lower self-efficacy, while higher schooling, better income, and use of reminder use were associated with higher self-efficacy for self-management. Further research is needed to determine the causal relationship between these variables and self-efficacy.

Keywords: Ethiopia; HIV; antiretroviral therapy; influencing; self-efficacy; self-management.

Grants and funding

The author(s) declare that no financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.