Epidemiological Insight of Pertussis in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Mater Sociomed. 2023;35(4):309-311. doi: 10.5455/msm.2023.35.309-311.

Abstract

Background: Pertussis is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The bacterium releases toxins that can lead to complications on the respiratory and nervous systems and even death. The disease occurs in people of all ages, but it is most severe in children under the age of five.

Objective: To present epidemiological data on this disease in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H) from 2018 to 2022, and from Central Bosnia Canton (CBC) for the period February-June 2018.

Methods: This descriptive epidemiological study collected data from the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology of the CBC and the Institute for Public Health of FB&H.

Results: In the specified period in the FB&H was confirmed 93 cases of Pertussis, 61 cases were reported from CBC, a total of 9 in Bugojno city. Confirmed cases from Bugojno were: 3 newborns, 3 infants, 2 three-year-old children and one 12-year-old child, 5 males and 4 females. Three children received first dose of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine, six children were not vaccinated. Children were under the supervision of pediatricians and infectious disease specialists, the disease passed without serious complications.

Conclusions: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that lasts for weeks. Recovery can be complete, but more serious complications are possible, especially in young children. With the discovery of the vaccine, morbidity and mortality from this disease has been significantly reduced. However, the disease is still present worldwide, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. By educating parents and educating the population on the importance of vaccination and achieving herd immunity, this disease can be completely eradicated in the near future. In recent years, many American and European countries recommend the immunization of pregnant women in the second half of pregnancy, which provides significant protection to newborns.

Keywords: children; immunization; prevention; whooping cough.