Assessment of freeze, continuous, and intermittent infrared drying methods for sliced persimmon

J Food Sci. 2024 Apr;89(4):2332-2346. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.16994. Epub 2024 Feb 21.


Persimmons contribute positively to human health. Although off-season utilization typically presents a challenge due to permissions' perishable nature, it may become feasible through the implementation of appropriate drying methods. In this study, round sliced samples were dried to assess drying kinetics, modeling potential, color attributes, rehydration capacity, energy consumption (EC), cost index, and thermal properties. The fruits were subjected to distinct drying methodologies including freeze-drying, continuous infrared drying (300, 400, and 500 W), and intermittent infrared drying (PR = 1 [continuous], PR = 2 [30 s on-30 s off], and PR = 3 [20 s on-40 s off]). The duration of the drying process ranged from 40 to 390 min. It was determined that the most suitable models for depicting continuous and infrared drying kinetics of persimmon fruit were the Midilli et al. and Page models, whereas the Logarithmic model was identified as the optimal choice for characterization of freeze-drying kinetics. Assessment of EC revealed that both intermittent and continuous infrared drying methods incurred lower energy expenditure in comparison to the freeze-drying technique. Remarkably, throughout the course of the infrared drying processes, product surface temperatures varied between 106.33 and 22.65°C across different treatments. Despite its high EC, it has been found that high-quality products are produced by freeze-drying. However, infrared and intermittent infrared applications can be a low energy cost and feasible method for drying persimmon with a shorter duration. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Persimmon is an important fruit with high nutritional value. However, as with many fresh products, they have a short shelf life. Within the scope of this research, three different drying methodologies were employed in the desiccation of persimmon specimens, and the impact of these methodologies on the overall qualitative attributes of the persimmon product was investigated. Despite its elevated energy consumption, the freeze-drying approach was found to yield high-quality products. Moreover, it was discerned that infrared drying represented a viable and expeditious alternative for drying the fruit, particularly when executed intermittently.

Keywords: color; drying; energy consumption; persimmon; thermal properties.

MeSH terms

  • Desiccation* / methods
  • Diospyros*
  • Freeze Drying / methods
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Temperature