Large language models for science and medicine

Eur J Clin Invest. 2024 Jun;54(6):e14183. doi: 10.1111/eci.14183. Epub 2024 Feb 21.


Large language models (LLMs) are a type of machine learning model that learn statistical patterns over text, such as predicting the next words in a sequence of text. Both general purpose and task-specific LLMs have demonstrated potential across diverse applications. Science and medicine have many data types that are highly suitable for LLMs, such as scientific texts (publications, patents and textbooks), electronic medical records, large databases of DNA and protein sequences and chemical compounds. Carefully validated systems that can understand and reason across all these modalities may maximize benefits. Despite the inevitable limitations and caveats of any new technology and some uncertainties specific to LLMs, LLMs have the potential to be transformative in science and medicine.

Keywords: applications; large language models; limitations; medicine; science; validation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Electronic Health Records
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning*
  • Medicine
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Patents as Topic
  • Science