Management of Uterine Fibroids and Sarcomas: The Palermo Position Paper

Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2024;89(2):73-86. doi: 10.1159/000537730. Epub 2024 Feb 21.


Background: Uterine fibroids are benign monoclonal tumors originating from the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium, constituting the most prevalent pathology within the female genital tract. Uterine sarcomas, although rare, still represent a diagnostic challenge and should be managed in centers with adequate expertise in gynecological oncology.

Objectives: This article is aimed to summarize and discuss cutting-edge elements about the diagnosis and management of uterine fibroids and sarcomas.

Methods: This paper is a report of the lectures presented in an expert meeting about uterine fibroids and sarcomas held in Palermo in February 2023.

Outcome: Overall, the combination of novel molecular pathways may help combine biomarkers and expert ultrasound for the differential diagnosis of uterine fibroids and sarcomas. On the one hand, molecular and cellular maps of uterine fibroids and matched myometrium may enhance our understanding of tumor development compared to histologic analysis and whole tissue transcriptomics, and support the development of minimally invasive treatment strategies; on the other hand, ultrasound imaging allows in most of the cases a proper mapping the fibroids and to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, which need appropriate management.

Conclusions and outlook: The choice of uterine fibroid management, including pharmacological approaches, surgical treatment, or other strategies, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), should be carefully considered, taking into account the characteristics of the patient and reproductive prognosis.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Hysteroscopy; Laparoscopy; Sarcomas; Treatment; Ultrasound; Uterine fibroids; Uterine myomectomy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma* / pathology
  • Leiomyoma* / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Sarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Sarcoma* / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Myomectomy*
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / therapy