Clinical significance of the post/preoperative anti-p53 antibody ratio in predicting the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer after curative surgery and its usefulness in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen

Oncology. 2024 Feb 21. doi: 10.1159/000537963. Online ahead of print.


[Introduction] Anti-p53 antibody (p53Ab) is useful for monitoring colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical impact of p53Ab ratio (p53R) before and after surgery to predict recurrence in patients with CRC. [Methods] In total, 1,223 patients with stage I-III CRC who underwent curative surgery between January 2005 and December 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. In patients with elevated p53Ab levels, p53R was calculated by measuring p53Ab levels within one month preoperatively and three months postoperatively. The optimal p53R level was determined, and its relationship with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was examined. We also evaluated the efficacy of the combination of p53R and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. [Results] Overall, 341 patients (27.9%) showed elevated p53Ab levels. Preoperative p53Ab levels were significantly associated with tumor location, lymphatic invasion, and venous invasion. The p53R level was significantly higher in patients with recurrent disease. Patients with high p53R levels had significantly shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) than those with low p53R levels (p < 0.001). When p53R was combined with preoperative CEA values, specificity improved to 0.97, with an accuracy of 0.88. [Conclusion] In patients with CRC and elevated preoperative p53Ab levels, p53R expression may be prognostically useful after radical resection. Furthermore, the combination of p53R and preoperative CEA levels may be useful for postoperative follow-ups.