Coagulation factor V in breast cancer: a p53-regulated tumor suppressor and predictive marker for treatment response to chemotherapy

J Thromb Haemost. 2024 Feb 19:S1538-7836(24)00106-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jtha.2024.02.008. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Patients with cancer are at an increased risk of developing coagulation complications, and chemotherapy treatment increases the risk. Tumor progression is closely linked to the hemostatic system. Breast cancer tumors express coagulation factor V (FV), an essential factor in blood coagulation. The functional role of FV during treatment with chemotherapy is poorly understood and was explored in this study.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of FV in breast cancer progression by exploring associations with treatment response, gene regulation, and the functional effects of FV.

Methods: The receiver operating characteristic plotter was used to explore the predictive value of FV mRNA (F5) expression for treatment with FEC (5-fluorouracil, anthracycline, and cyclophosphamide). Breast cancer cohorts were analyzed to study treatment response to FEC. The effect of chemotherapy on F5 expression, the regulation of F5, and the functional effects of FV dependent and independent of chemotherapy were studied in breast cancer cell lines.

Results: F5 tumor expression was significantly higher in responders to FEC than in nonresponders. In vitro experiments revealed that anthracycline treatment increased the expression of F5. Inhibition and knockdown of p53 reduced the anthracycline-induced F5 expression. Mutation of a p53 half-site (c.158+1541/158+1564) in a luciferase plasmid reduced luciferase activity, suggesting that p53 plays a role in regulating F5. FV overexpression increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation slightly during anthracycline treatment.

Conclusion: Our study identified F5 as a p53-regulated tumor suppressor candidate and a promising marker for response to chemotherapy. FV may have functional effects that are therapeutically relevant in breast cancer.

Keywords: biomarker; breast cancer; factor V; neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment; p53 tumor suppressor protein.