Magnitude of Type I Interferon Responses by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells After TLR7 Stimulation Is Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Reservoir Sizes in Cisgender Women With HIV-1 on Antiretroviral Therapy

J Infect Dis. 2024 Feb 22:jiae013. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiae013. Online ahead of print.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease manifestations differ between cisgender women and men, including better control of viral replication during primary infection and less frequent residual HIV-1 replication on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in cisgender women with HIV-1 (WWH). Investigating plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) functions and HIV-1 reservoir sizes in 20 WWH on stable ART, we observed inverse correlations between interferon-α and tumor necrosis factor responses of pDCs to Toll-like receptor 7/8 stimulation and intact/total proviral HIV-1 DNA levels. Additionally, ISG15 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlated with cytokine responses of pDCs. These findings demonstrate an association between higher type I interferon responses and lower HIV-1 reservoir sizes in WWH on ART, warranting studies to identify the underlying mechanisms.

Keywords: HIV reservoir; HIV-1; dendritic cells; innate immunity; interferon.