State-of-the-art therapies for fragile X syndrome

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15885. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene. FXS is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disabilities and the most commonly known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. Children with FXS experience behavioral and sleep problems, anxiety, inattention, learning difficulties, and speech and language delays. There are no approved medications for FXS; however, there are several interventions and treatments aimed at managing the symptoms and improving the quality of life of individuals with FXS. A combination of non-pharmacological therapies and pharmacotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for FXS. Currently, several targeted treatments, such as metformin, sertraline, and cannabidiol, can be used by clinicians to treat FXS. Gene therapy is rapidly developing and holds potential as a prospective treatment option. Soon its efficacy and safety in patients with FXS will be demonstrated.

Publication types

  • Review