Genes in Axonal Regeneration

Mol Neurobiol. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s12035-024-04049-z. Online ahead of print.


This review explores the molecular and genetic underpinnings of axonal regeneration and functional recovery post-nerve injury, emphasizing its significance in reversing neurological deficits. It presents a systematic exploration of the roles of various genes in axonal regrowth across peripheral and central nerve injuries. Initially, it highlights genes and gene families critical for axonal growth and guidance, delving into their roles in regeneration. It then examines the regenerative microenvironment, focusing on the role of glial cells in neural repair through dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration. The concept of "traumatic microenvironments" within the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) is discussed, noting their impact on regenerative capacities and their importance in therapeutic strategy development. Additionally, the review delves into axonal transport mechanisms essential for accurate growth and reinnervation, integrating insights from proteomics, genome-wide screenings, and gene editing advancements. Conclusively, it synthesizes these insights to offer a comprehensive understanding of axonal regeneration's molecular orchestration, aiming to inform effective nerve injury therapies and contribute to regenerative neuroscience.

Keywords: Axonal regeneration; Axonal transport; CNS; Dedifferentiation; Gene expression; Genes; Glial cells; Migration; Neurotrophic factors; PNS; Proliferation; Regenerative microenvironment; Signaling pathways; Therapeutic interventions.

Publication types

  • Review