Psychometric Properties of the Body-Mind-Spirit Wellness Behavior and Characteristic Inventory for the Greek Population

Healthcare (Basel). 2024 Feb 16;12(4):478. doi: 10.3390/healthcare12040478.


The Body-Mind-Spirit Wellness Behavior and Characteristic Inventory (BMS-WBCI) is a free-of-charge wellness tool with good psychometric properties, widely used mainly in studies assessing quality of life and healthy lifestyle habits. This certain tool is based on the Hettler's (1980) model and has been validated for use with students aged 18-36. The purpose of this study was to adapt the BMS-WBCI in the Greek language and at the same time to validate it for use in the general population. This study included 520 participants aged 16-75 (M = 39.86, SD = 10.5), who were recruited from the Greek population using the snowball procedure. The BMS-WBCI was adapted into Greek language, following a multiple forward-and-backward translation protocol. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to validate the overall construct of the Greek BMS-WBCI. The final solution was a three-factor model with 38 items, after removing the items B1, B8, B9, M11, M24, and S43. This final model demonstrated an acceptable to good fit, presenting higher goodness-of-fit indices (CFI = 0.91, TLI = 0.90) and lower badness-of-fit indices (χ2/653 = 2.29, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.06). All items in the hypothesized model exhibited statistically significant standardized factor loadings (p < 0.001), with loadings consistently above 0.40. A very good internal consistency was found using the composite reliability measures (Body 0.86, Mind 0.95, Spirit 0.94). Further analysis indicated a good convergent validity (average variance extracted values: Body 50.5%, Mind 50.7%, Spirit 54.9%). The results indicated adequate discriminant validity, as all square roots of average variance extracted were higher than the correlation between construct items. In conclusion, this psychometric evaluation of the BMS-WBCI adds to the evidence supporting its use in the Greek language, not only in students, but also in the general population.

Keywords: aging; language adaptation; psychometric testing; quality of life; whole-person wellness.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.