The Pine Cone Optimization Algorithm (PCOA)

Biomimetics (Basel). 2024 Feb 1;9(2):91. doi: 10.3390/biomimetics9020091.


The present study introduces a novel nature-inspired optimizer called the Pine Cone Optimization algorithm (PCOA) for solving science and engineering problems. PCOA is designed based on the different mechanisms of pine tree reproduction, including pollination and pine cone dispersal by gravity and animals. It employs new and powerful operators to simulate the mentioned mechanisms. The performance of PCOA is analyzed using classic benchmark functions, CEC017 and CEC2019 as mathematical problems and CEC2006 and CEC2011 as engineering design problems. In terms of accuracy, the results show the superiority of PCOA to well-known algorithms (PSO, DE, and WOA) and new algorithms (AVOA, RW_GWO, HHO, and GBO). The results of PCOA are competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms (LSHADE and EBOwithCMAR). In terms of convergence speed and time complexity, the results of PCOA are reasonable. According to the Friedman test, PCOA's rank is 1.68 and 9.42 percent better than EBOwithCMAR (second-best algorithm) and LSHADE (third-best algorithm), respectively. The authors recommend PCOA for science, engineering, and industrial societies for solving complex optimization problems.

Keywords: engineering problems; mathematical benchmark functions; nature-inspired; optimization; pine cone; pine tree; swarm intelligence.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.