Microfluidics as diagnostic tools

Clin Chim Acta. 2024 Mar 15:556:117841. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2024.117841. Epub 2024 Feb 22.


The challenges in the management of human diseases are largely determined by the precision, speed and ease of diagnostic procedures available. Developments in biomedical engineering technologies have greatly helped in transforming human health care, especially for disease diagnosis which in turn lead to better patient outcomes. One such development is in the form of microfluidic chip technology which has transformed various aspects of human health care. We present in this review, a comprehensive account on the utility of microfluidic chip technologies for the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative conditions. We have included the diseases posing global threat such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, pernicious anemia, tuberculosis, COVID-19, influenza, alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Apart from discussing the ways of microfluidic chip in diagnosis, we included a section presenting electrochemical, electrical, optical, and acoustic detection technologies for the precise diagnosis of CVDs. Microfluidics platforms have thus revolutionized novel capabilities in addressing the requirements of point-of-care diagnostics enabling miniaturization by integrating multiple laboratory functions into a single chip resulting in "one flow - one solution" systems. Hence, the precision and early diagnoses of diseases are now possible due to the advancements of microfluidics-based technology.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Human disease; Microfluidic chip; Point-of-care; Precision.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Communicable Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Electricity
  • Humans
  • Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques*
  • Microfluidics / methods