Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against pulmonary surfactant apoproteins which were isolated from lung lavages of patients with alveolar proteinosis with the following steps: solubilization of the surface-active fraction by Triton X-100, delipidation with butanol-ethanol extraction followed by column chromatographies on Blue-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl in the presence of dithiothreitol. The fraction including 62 and 36 kDa proteins, i.e., pulmonary surfactant apoproteins, was used for the immunization. Monoclonal antibodies against the pulmonary surfactant apoproteins were prepared using hybridoma technology. The monoclonal antibodies prepared, PC6 and PE10, recognized the same proteins, i.e., 62 and 36 kDa proteins, in the patients' lavages. They also recognized 37 and 34 kDa proteins in human lung lavage and amniotic fluid. Quantitation of the apoproteins by enzyme-immunoassay using the monoclonal antibodies has been developed. A combination of PC6 and PE10 was found to be useful for a two-site sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where it gave a good dose response and was capable of measuring 10-1280 ng of the apoprotein/ml. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies in animal species was tested by this sandwich ELISA. The results indicated that the monoclonal antibodies obtained in this study are specific for the human lung.