The Effects of an Inclusive Badminton Program on Static Postural Control for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2024 Feb 10;21(2):210. doi: 10.3390/ijerph21020210.


The purpose of the study was to examine static postural control/balance in young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and typically developing (TD) young adults before, during, and after an inclusive badminton intervention. Eight participants (four IDD-BADM and four TD-BADM) participated in a 12-week inclusive badminton intervention, with the other eight participants as matched controls (four IDD-CONTR and four TD-CONTR) (74.19 kg ± 9.8 kg, 171.96 cm ± 5.4 cm; 21.7 ± 1.8 years of age; nine females and seven males; eight with IDD and eight TD). The study followed a repeated measures design (pre, mid, post) before the intervention, at 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. Static postural sway conditions included: bilateral stance eyes open (20 s), eyes closed (10 s), foam eyes open (20 s), foam eyes closed (10 s), and unilateral stance eyes open (10 s) and foam eyes open (10 s). Sway measurements included: average anterior/posterior (A/P) displacement (in), average medial/lateral (M/L) displacement (in), average 95% ellipsoid area (in2), and average velocity (ft/s). Significant time × group interactions were reported for average velocity (EO) (p = 0.030), average length (EO) (p = 0.030), 95% ellipsoid area (EO) (p = 0.049), and average A/P displacement (1LEO) (p = 0.036) for IDD-BADM. Significant time main effects were reported for average A/P displacement (FEO) (p = 0.040) for IDD groups. Significant time main effects were reported for average M/L displacement (EO) (p = 0.001), (EC) (p = 0.004), (FEO) (p = 0.005), (FEC) (p = 0.004), and average A/P displacement (EO) (p = 0.006) and (FEO) (p = 0.005) for TD groups. An inclusive badminton program indicated evidence of improved static postural control for those with IDD. However, no significant differences were reported for TD peers.

Keywords: adapted physical activity; disabilities; exercise intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Developmental Disabilities*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postural Balance*
  • Research Design
  • Young Adult

Grants and funding

Badminton equipment funding was provided by the Badminton World Federation (BWF).