Inflammatory Complications in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

J Clin Med. 2024 Feb 15;13(4):1092. doi: 10.3390/jcm13041092.


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inborn error of immunity that typically manifests with infectious complications. As the name suggest though, inflammatory complications are also common, often affecting the gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary tracts and other tissues. These can be seen in all various types of CGD, from X-linked and autosomal recessive to X-linked carriers. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these complications are not well understood, but are likely multi-factorial and reflect the body's attempt to control infections. The different levels of neutrophil residual oxidase activity are thought to contribute to the large phenotypic variations. Immunosuppressive agents have traditionally been used to treat these complications, but their use is hindered by the fact that CGD patients are predisposed to infection. Novel therapeutic agents, like anti-TNFa monoclonal antibodies, anakinra, ustekinumab, and vedolizumab offer promise for the future, while hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should also be considered in these patients.

Keywords: X-linked; autosomal recessive; bowel obstruction; chronic granulomatous disease; colitis; cystitis; granulomatous inflammation; inflammatory complications; interstitial lung disease.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.