Differences in metabolic biomarkers in people with schizophrenia who are of Mexican descent compared to non-Hispanic whites

Psychiatry Res. 2024 Apr:334:115788. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2024.115788. Epub 2024 Feb 12.


Metabolic dysfunction is highly prevalent and contributes to premature mortality among people with schizophrenia (PwS), especially in Hispanic/Latino/a/x/e PwS, compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) PwS. This study evaluated the relative contributions of Mexican descent and schizophrenia diagnosis to metabolic biomarker levels. This cross-sectional study included 115 PwS and 102 non-psychiatric comparison (NC) participants - English-speakers aged 26-66 years, 27% Mexican descent, and 52% women across both groups. Assessments included evaluations of BMI, psychopathology, and fasting metabolic biomarkers. We used ANOVA analyses to compare metabolic outcomes between diagnostic and ethnic subgroups, linear regression models to examine associations between Mexican descent and metabolic outcomes, and Spearman's correlations to examine relationships between metabolic outcomes and illness-related variables in PwS. Mexican PwS had higher hemoglobin A1c levels, insulin resistance, and body mass index than NHW PwS. Mexican descent was associated with higher hemoglobin A1c levels, insulin resistance, body mass index, and leptin levels, controlling for age, sex, depression, education, and smoking. Among Mexican PwS, worse negative symptoms were associated with greater insulin resistance. These findings support the possibility of ethnicity-based differences in metabolic dysregulation, though further investigation is warranted to create targeted health interventions for Hispanic PwS.

Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c; Hispanic; Insulin resistance; Leptin; Metabolic syndrome; Psychosis.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Schizophrenia*
  • White People


  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Biomarkers