The presence of white cell Jordan's anomaly in multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: A case report and implications for clinical practice

Clin Biochem. 2024 Mar:125:110735. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2024.110735. Epub 2024 Feb 22.

Abstract

Background: Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD), also known as Glutaric Aciduria Type II, is an exceptionally rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that disrupts the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and choline. It presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations, from severe neonatal-onset forms to milder late-onset cases, with symptoms including metabolic disturbances and muscle weakness. Jordan's anomaly is a distinctive morphological feature found in peripheral blood white cells and is typically associated with Neutral Lipid Storage Disease (NLSD).

Case report: In our case report, the patient initially presented with symptoms of vomiting, abdominal pain, and altered consciousness. The presence of white cell Jordan's anomaly was detected in the blood smear. Subsequent serum tests revealed elevated levels of transaminases, creatine kinase, uric acid, and multiple acylcarnitines, while blood glucose and free carnitine levels were notably reduced. High-throughput sequencing confirmed heterozygous pathogenic variants in the electron-transferring flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene, leading to the conclusive diagnosis of MADD. Following a three-month treatment regimen involving high-dose vitamin B2, coenzyme Q10, and other supportive interventions, the patient exhibited significant clinical improvement, ultimately resulting in discharge.

Conclusion: The identification of Jordan's anomaly in a pediatric patient with late-onset MADD sheds light on its broader implications within the realm of lipid storage myopathies. The significance of this finding extends beyond its conventional association with NLSD, challenging the notion of its exclusivity. This novel observation serves as a compelling reminder of the diagnostic significance this morphological abnormality holds, potentially revolutionizing diagnostic practices within the field.

Keywords: ETFDH; Jordan's anomaly; Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Amino Acids
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Jordan
  • Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors*
  • Lipids
  • Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency* / diagnosis
  • Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency* / drug therapy
  • Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency* / genetics
  • Muscular Diseases*
  • Mutation

Substances

  • Amino Acids
  • Lipids
  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase

Supplementary concepts

  • Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome