Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients surviving at least 2 years without relapse: outcome and risk factors

EJHaem. 2024 Feb 5;5(1):117-124. doi: 10.1002/jha2.842. eCollection 2024 Feb.


Outcomes of 2-year survivours undergoing allo-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation at Oslo University Hospital were retrospectively assessed with the objectives of identification of risk factors for late death as possible means for precautionary measures and interventions to improve long-term survival. 421 patients with haematological malignancy, transplanted between 2005 and 2019, alive and free of disease after 2 years were included with data reported from The OUS-HSCT registry. Median follow-up was 6.2 years (2.016.1), and 232 patients (55%) were observed for minimum 5 years. The probability of being alive 5 and 10 years after HSCT was 86% and 76%. Primary risk factors for late death included initial diagnosis of age ≥ 60 years, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), previous blood stream- or invasive fungal infection (BSI, IFI), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse at 5 years were 9.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Two factors were associated with the latter: cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative donor and CLL. Compared with the age- and gender-matched Norwegian general population, life expectancy was lower for each disease, except for CML. The prospect for the long-term survival is good for 2-year survivors of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, life expectancy remains inferior to the age- and gender-matched general population. Optimising prophylaxis and treatment for chronic GVHD, BSI and IFI are needed along with the improved adherence to guidelines for early detection of secondary malignancies. Measures to improve immune reconstitution, possibly the microbiota, and the use of CMV seropositive donors regardless of recipient sero-status may be warranted and should be addressed in further studies.

Keywords: Allo‐HSCT; GvHD‐prophylaxis; aGvHD; cGvHD; long‐term follow‐up.