Kidney Disease and Proteomics: A Recent Overview of a Useful Tool for Improving Early Diagnosis

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2024:1443:173-186. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-50624-6_9.


Kidney disease is a critical and potentially life-threatening degenerative condition that poses a significant global public health challenge due to its elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. It manifests primarily in two distinct clinical forms: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of these conditions hinges on a multitude of factors, including the etiological agents and the presence of coexisting medical conditions. Despite disparities in their underlying pathogenic mechanisms, both AKI and CKD can progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This advanced stage is characterized by organ failure and its associated complications, greatly increasing the risk of mortality. There is an urgent need to delve into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these diseases and to identify novel biomarkers that can facilitate earlier diagnosis. Such early detection is crucial for enhancing the efficacy of therapy and impeding disease progression. In this context, proteomic approaches have emerged as invaluable tools for uncovering potential new markers of different pathological conditions, including kidney diseases. In this chapter, we overview the recent discoveries achieved through diverse proteomic techniques aimed at identifying novel molecules that may play a pivotal role in kidney diseases such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), CKD of unknown origin (CKDu), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), lupus nephritis (LN), hypertensive nephropathy (HN), and COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury (COVID-AKI).

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Chronic kidney disease; Kidney disease; Mass spectrometry; Proteomics; Urinary biomarkers; Urinary peptides; Urinary proteins.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Biomarkers
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic*
  • Proteomics / methods
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic*


  • Biomarkers