Photodetectors integrating waveguides and semiconductor materials

Nanoscale. 2024 Mar 14;16(11):5504-5520. doi: 10.1039/d4nr00305e.


Photodetectors integrating substrates and semiconductor materials are increasingly attractive for applications in optical communication, optical sensing, optical computing, and military owing to the unique optoelectronic properties of semiconductor materials. However, it is still a challenge to realize high-performance photodetectors by only integrating substrates and semiconductor materials because of the limitation of incident light in contact with sensitive materials. In recent years, waveguides such as silicon (Si) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have attracted extensive attention owing to their unique optical properties. Waveguides can be easily hetero-integrated with semiconductor materials, thus providing a promising approach for realizing high-performance photodetectors. Herein, we review recent advances in photodetectors integrating waveguides in two parts. The first involves the waveguide types and semiconductor materials commonly used to fabricate photodetectors, including Si, Si3N4, gallium nitride, organic waveguides, graphene, and MoTe2. The second involves the photodetectors of different wavelengths that integrate waveguides, ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. These hybrid photodetectors integrating waveguides and semiconductor materials provide an alternative way to realize multifunctional and high-performance photonic integrated chips and circuits.

Publication types

  • Review