Efficient nanostructured materials to reduce nutrient leaching to overcome environmental contaminants

Sci Rep. 2024 Feb 27;14(1):4772. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-54049-1.


Nutrient leaching is a major reason for fresh and ground water contamination. Menthol is the major bioactive ingredient of Mentha arvensis L. and one of the most traded products of global essential oil market. The indigenous production of menthol crystals in developing countries of the world can prove to be the backbone for local growers and poor farmers. Therefore, present research was designed to check the effects of nano-structured plant growth regulators (PGRs) (28-homobrassinolide and ethephon) with reduced leaching potentials on the essential oil and menthol (%) of Mentha arvensis L. The prepared nano-formulations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Differential scanning colorimetry-thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and Zeta potential and Zeta size analysis. The menthol (%) was determined by modified spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic (GC) method. The highest essential oil (%) was obtained by the application of 28-homobrassinolide-Zn-NPs-L-II (0.92 ± 0.09%) and ethephon-Ca-NPs-L-III (0.91 ± 0.05%) as compared to the control (0.65 ± 0.03%) and blank (0.62 ± 0.09%). The highest menthol (%) was obtained by applying 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-I (80.06 ± 0.07%), 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-II (80.48 ± 0.09%) and 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-III (80.84 ± 0.11%) and ethephon-Ca-NPs-L-III (81.53 ± 0.17%) and ethephon-Zn-NPs-L-II (81.93 ± 0.26%) as compared to control (67.19 ± 0.14%) and blank (63.93 ± 0.17%).

Keywords: Mentha arvensis L. LIBS; 28-homobrassinolide; DSC-TGA; Ethephon; Menthol; SEM.

MeSH terms

  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Mentha* / metabolism
  • Menthol / pharmacology
  • Oils, Volatile* / chemistry
  • Organophosphorus Compounds*


  • Menthol
  • ethephon
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Organophosphorus Compounds