Profiling of endogenous metabolites and changes in intestinal microbiota distribution after GEN-001 (Lactococcus lactis) administration

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2024 Mar 1;28(2):153-164. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2024.28.2.153.


This study aimed to identify metabolic biomarkers and investigate changes in intestinal microbiota in the feces of healthy participants following administration of Lactococcus lactis GEN-001. GEN-001 is a single-strain L. lactis strain isolated from the gut of a healthy human volunteer. The study was conducted as a parallel, randomized, phase 1, open design trial. Twenty healthy Korean males were divided into five groups according to the GEN-001 dosage and dietary control. Groups A, B, C, and D1 received 1, 3, 6, and 9 GEN-001 capsules (1 × 1011 colony forming units), respectively, without dietary adjustment, whereas group D2 received 9 GEN-001 capsules with dietary adjustment. All groups received a single dose. Fecal samples were collected 2 days before GEN-001 administration to 7 days after for untargeted metabolomics and gut microbial metagenomic analyses; blood samples were collected simultaneously for immunogenicity analysis. Levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and tryptophan were significantly increased at 5-6 days after GEN-001 administration when compared with predose levels. Compared with predose, the relative abundance (%) of Parabacteroides and Alistipes significantly decreased, whereas that of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus increased; Lactobacillus and tryptophan levels were negatively correlated. A single administration of GEN-001 shifted the gut microbiota in healthy volunteers to a more balanced state as evidenced by an increased abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus, and higher levels of the metabolites that have immunogenic properties.

Keywords: Biological products; Gastrointestinal microbiome; Lactococcus lactis; Metabolomics; Microbiota.