Orforglipron, a novel non-peptide oral daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist as an anti-obesity medicine: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Obes Sci Pract. 2024 Feb 26;10(2):e743. doi: 10.1002/osp4.743. eCollection 2024 Apr.


Background: Orforglipron is a novel once-daily oral non-peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with several recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating its role in diabetes and obesity. No meta-analysis has analyzed the efficacy and safety of orforglipron; this meta-analysis aimed to address this knowledge gap.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify RCTs that included individuals with obesity who were administered orforglipron and compared to either a placebo or an active comparator. The primary outcome of interest was the percent change in body weight.

Results: From 12 initially screened articles, data from three RCTs involving 774 people were analyzed with a follow-up duration of up to 36 weeks. Compared to placebo, patients receiving orforglipron 12 mg/day (mean difference (MD), MD -5.48%, 95% CI [-7.64, -3.33], p < 0.01), 24 mg/day (MD -8.51%, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-9.88, -7.14], p < 0.01), 36 mg/day (MD -8.84%, 95% CI [-11.68, -6.00], p < 0.01) and 45 mg/day (MD -8.24%, 95% CI [-12.84, -3.63], p < 0.01) had a significantly greater percent reduction in body weight. The percentage of patients being able to achieve >15% weight loss from baseline was significantly higher with orforglipron 24 mg/day [Odds ratio (OR) 21.90 (95% CI [4.06, 118.15], p = 0.0003), 36 mg/day (OR 17.43, 95% CI [3.18, 95.66], p = 0.001) and 45 mg/day (OR 23.17, 95% CI [4.37, 123.03], p = 0.0002). Total but not severe adverse events were significantly higher with all the doses of orforglipron compared to placebo, with the hazard ratios being higher with higher doses. Gastrointestinal side-effects were predominant side effects, being dose-dependent, with nausea, vomiting, constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux being the predominant ones.

Conclusion: Orforglipron at 24-45 mg/day doses is an effective weight loss medication. The efficacy versus side effect profile suggests that 24-36 mg/day is the most optimal dose for orforglipron as an anti-obesity medicine.

Keywords: GLP1RA; emerging treatments; medications; obesity; orforglipron.

Publication types

  • Review