Meta-analysis to determine efficacy of colony-stimulating factor 2 for improving pregnancy success after embryo transfer in cattle

Theriogenology. 2024 Apr 15:219:126-131. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2024.02.025. Epub 2024 Feb 23.


Results have been inconsistent as to whether addition of colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) to culture medium improves embryo competence for establishment of pregnancy in cattle and humans. The purpose of the current study was to use all available experiments in cattle concerning effects of CSF2 on pregnancy success after transfer into recipient cattle. The approach was to perform a meta-analysis of all published data sets as well as data from an unpublished experiment described for the first time here. Meta-analysis failed to support the hypothesis that addition of CSF2 to embryo culture medium improves competence of bovine blastocysts to increase pregnancy or calving rates after transfer into recipient females. Thus, its general use as a culture medium additive to increase pregnancy success after embryo transfer is not recommended.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blastocyst
  • Cattle
  • Embryo Culture Techniques / veterinary
  • Embryo Transfer* / veterinary
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Embryonic Development*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy