Good short-term results following arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty combined with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: surgical technique and outcomes

J ISAKOS. 2024 Feb 29:S2059-7754(24)00044-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jisako.2024.02.016. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: To report short-term results and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty combined with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction utilizing standard arthroscopic instruments in patients of recurrent patellar dislocation and trochlear dysplasia.

Methods: This is a case series of 13 patients between the ages of 14 and 20 years who presented with recurrent patellar dislocation and severe trochlear dysplasia (Dejour grade D). They were treated surgically using an arthroscopic technique from February 2017 to January 2019 and were followed for 18 months. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (at 6, 12, and 18 months) with clinical scores (Tegner Activity Score, Lysholm Knee Score, and Kujala Score).

Results: There were 69.2% females, and the mean age was 16.4 ​± ​2.0 years. There were statistically significant improvements in the mean Lysholm and Kujala scores when comparing pre-operative and post-operative scores at every follow-up landmark (p ​< ​0.05). Comparing the preoperative and 18-month postoperative scores-the Lysholm score improved from 68.2 ​± ​10.3 to 98.7 ​± ​2.1 (p ​< ​0.001), and the Kujala score improved from 50.3 ​± ​12.0 to 95.4 ​± ​4.8 (p ​< ​0.001). Five patients were able to achieve premorbid Tegner activity levels at 12 months, with an additional 5 patients achieving the same premorbid Tegner activity at the 18-month mark. The remaining 3 patients were able to attain >90% of their activity level at 18 months' follow-up. No complications were observed during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: This proposed arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty technique combined with MPFL reconstruction has demonstrated excellent and reproducible early clinical outcomes.

Level of evidence: IV.

Keywords: Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction; Patellofemoral instability; Recurrent patellar dislocation; Trochlear dysplasia; Trochleoplasty.