Isolated fallopian tube torsion: A systematic review of case reports

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2024 May:296:140-147. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2024.02.050. Epub 2024 Feb 29.


Objective: To combine all literature describing cases of isolated fallopian tube torsion in adult non pregnant patients in a systematic manner, to optimize knowledge and practice both for diagnosis and management.

Study design: EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched for the terms 'tubal' OR 'fallopian tube' AND 'isolated' AND 'torsion' from the inception of these databases to July 5, 2023. All case reports or case series of adult patients (18 years or older) with isolated fallopian tube torsion were included. Exclusion criteria included: all other study types; cases involving children and adolescents (less than 18 years old); pregnant patients of all trimesters; tubo-ovarian torsion; studies not published in English; duplicates and those not available in text. Following the database search, two authors independently screened the studies and search results were subsequently reported in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Data was extracted independently by two authors and analysed using Excel. All cases were assessed for bias using a modified version of the tool proposed by Murad et al. RESULTS: 92 unique articles enrolling 131 individual cases were included in this systematic review. Isolated fallopian tube torsion most commonly occurs during reproductive ages between 18 and 45 years. It is uncommon in postmenopausal women. The most common presenting symptoms include unilateral lower abdominal or pelvic pain along the affected side with nausea and vomiting. Risk factors can be intrinsic or extrinsic and can include conditions such as hydrosalpinx, sterilization, pelvic inflammatory disease or cysts. Ultrasound is the optimal imaging modality however Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging can also be used. Imaging in general has low sensitivity, however isolated fallopian tube torsion can be identified with appropriate expertise. The gold standard for isolated fallopian tube torsion management is laparoscopy and detorsion however currently, the most common intervention performed is salpingectomy.

Conclusions: Isolated fallopian tube torsion is a rare but important gynaecological emergency with significant fertility implications. This study summarizes the most common presentations, investigation findings and surgical interventions in patients with isolated fallopian tube torsion. This study also emphasizes the importance of clinicians maintaining a high degree of suspicion and low threshold for early laparoscopic intervention to retain fertility.

Keywords: Fallopian; Fertility; Isolated; Torsion; Tubal; Tube.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Fallopian Tube Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Fallopian Tubes*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Ovarian Torsion / pathology
  • Salpingectomy
  • Torsion Abnormality / diagnosis
  • Young Adult