Hypersensitive Reactions During Hemodialysis Treatment: What Do We Need to Know?

Semin Dial. 2024 May-Jun;37(3):189-199. doi: 10.1111/sdi.13197. Epub 2024 Mar 4.

Abstract

Kidney replacement therapies (KRTs) including hemodialysis (HD) are one of the treatment options for most of the patients with end-stage kidney disease. Although HD is vital for these patients, it is not hundred percent physiological, and various adverse events including hypersensitivity reactions may occur. Fortunately, these reactions are rare in total and less when compared to previous decades, but it is still very important for at least two reasons: First, the number of patients receiving kidney replacement treatment is increasing globally; and the cumulative number of these reactions may be substantial. Second, although most of these reactions are mild, some of them may be very severe and even lead to mortality. Thus, it is very important to have basic knowledge and skills to diagnose and treat these reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur at any component of dialysis machinery (access, extracorporeal circuit, medications, etc.). The most important preventive measure is to avoid the allergen. However, even with very specific test, sometimes the allergen cannot be found. In mild conditions, HD can be contained with non-specific treatment (topical creams, antihistaminics, corticosteroids). In more severe conditions, treatment must be stopped immediately, blood should not be returned to patient, drugs must be stopped, and rules of general emergency treatment must be followed.

Keywords: allergy; hemodialysis; hypersensitivity; immunoglobulin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Drug Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Drug Hypersensitivity / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Hypersensitivity / therapy
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / therapy
  • Renal Dialysis* / adverse effects