Baby oil is a common household product that is frequently used when there are infants or toddlers in the house. However, it is often overlooked as a potential source of danger to these youngsters. In 1983, 36,700 cases of ingestion were reported to the poisoning surveillance and epidemiology branch of the Food and Drug Administration. Topical preparations used in the care of infants accounted for 480 of the cases. Ten percent of these required hospitalization. In 36 cases, the product ingested was baby oil. This figure does not include baby lotions and other skin products with a mineral oil base. Aspiration of mineral oil, the main component of baby oil, has been described as a cause of lipoid pneumonia and oleomas. However, there is very little information in the modern literature concerning acute lipoid pneumonitis in children. We herein present a patient with lipoid pneumonia caused by aspirated baby oil, who followed a severe clinical course. The paucity of information regarding this subject points to the need for increased public and physician awareness of the problem and for their direct participation in the prevention of this potentially fatal condition.