Autism spectrum disorder: pathogenesis, biomarker, and intervention therapy

MedComm (2020). 2024 Mar 2;5(3):e497. doi: 10.1002/mco2.497. eCollection 2024 Mar.


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has become a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The heterogeneity of ASD poses great challenges for its research and clinical translation. On the basis of reviewing the heterogeneity of ASD, this review systematically summarized the current status and progress of pathogenesis, diagnostic markers, and interventions for ASD. We provided an overview of the ASD molecular mechanisms identified by multi-omics studies and convergent mechanism in different genetic backgrounds. The comorbidities, mechanisms associated with important physiological and metabolic abnormalities (i.e., inflammation, immunity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction), and gut microbial disorder in ASD were reviewed. The non-targeted omics and targeting studies of diagnostic markers for ASD were also reviewed. Moreover, we summarized the progress and methods of behavioral and educational interventions, intervention methods related to technological devices, and research on medical interventions and potential drug targets. This review highlighted the application of high-throughput omics methods in ASD research and emphasized the importance of seeking homogeneity from heterogeneity and exploring the convergence of disease mechanisms, biomarkers, and intervention approaches, and proposes that taking into account individuality and commonality may be the key to achieve accurate diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; biomarker; intervention therapy; molecular mechanisms; multi‐omics.

Publication types

  • Review