Dissecting the Ability of Siglecs To Antagonize Fcγ Receptors

ACS Cent Sci. 2024 Jan 17;10(2):315-330. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.3c00969. eCollection 2024 Feb 28.


Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) play key roles in the effector function of IgG, but their inappropriate activation plays a role in several disease etiologies. Therefore, it is critical to better understand how FcγRs are regulated. Numerous studies suggest that sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs), a family of immunomodulatory receptors, modulate FcγR activity; however, it is unclear of the circumstances in which Siglecs can antagonize FcγRs and which Siglecs have this ability. Using liposomes displaying selective ligands to coengage FcγRs with a specific Siglec, we explore the ability of Siglec-3, Siglec-5, Siglec-7, and Siglec-9 to antagonize signaling downstream of FcγRs. We demonstrate that Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 can fully inhibit FcγR activation in U937 cells when coengaged with FcγRs. Cells expressing Siglec mutants reveal differential roles for the immunomodulatory tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunomodulatory tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) in this inhibition. Imaging flow cytometry enabled visualization of SHP-1 recruitment to Siglec-3 in an ITIM-dependent manner, while SHP-2 recruitment is more ITSM-dependent. Conversely, both cytosolic motifs of Siglec-9 contribute to SHP-1/2 recruitment. Siglec-7 poorly antagonizes FcγR activation for two reasons: masking by cis ligands and differences in its ITIM and ITSM. A chimera of the Siglec-3 extracellular domains and Siglec-5 cytosolic tail strongly inhibits FcγR when coengaged, providing evidence that Siglec-5 is more like Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 in its ability to antagonize FcγRs. Additionally, Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 inhibited FcγRs when coengaged by cells displaying ligands for both the Siglec and FcγRs. These results suggest a role for Siglecs in mediating FcγR inhibition in the context of an immunological synapse, which has important relevance to the effectiveness of immunotherapies.