Recurring SARS-CoV-2 variants: an update on post-pandemic, co-infections and immune response

Nanotheranostics. 2024 Feb 25;8(2):247-269. doi: 10.7150/ntno.91910. eCollection 2024.


The post-pandemic era following the global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought about persistent concerns regarding recurring coinfections. While significant strides in genome mapping, diagnostics, and vaccine development have controlled the pandemic and reduced fatalities, ongoing virus mutations necessitate a deeper exploration of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the host's immune response. Various vaccines, including RNA-based ones like Pfizer and Moderna, viral vector vaccines like Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca, and protein subunit vaccines like Novavax, have played critical roles in mitigating the impact of COVID-19. Understanding their strengths and limitations is crucial for tailoring future vaccines to specific variants and individual needs. The intricate relationship between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the immune response remains a focus of intense research, providing insights into personalized treatment strategies and long-term effects like long-COVID. This article offers an overview of the post-pandemic landscape, highlighting emerging variants, summarizing vaccine platforms, and delving into immunological responses and the phenomenon of long-COVID. By presenting clinical findings, it aims to contribute to the ongoing understanding of COVID-19's progression in the aftermath of the pandemic.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Coinfection*
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • Protein Subunit Vaccines
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Protein Subunit Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants