Enterococcal endocarditis management and relapses

JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2024 Mar 6;6(2):dlae033. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlae033. eCollection 2024 Apr.


Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis is the third micro-organism causing endocarditis and is associated with a significant relapse rate. The objective of this study was to describe the management of patients with Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis (EE) and its implication for relapses.

Methods: We conducted a monocentric, retrospective analysis of all patients hospitalized for EE including endocarditis or infection of cardiac implantable electronic device defined by the modified ESC 2015 Duke criteria in a referral centre in Paris, France.

Results: Between October 2016, and September 2022, 54 patients with EE were included, mostly men (n = 40, 74%) with a median age of 75 [68-80] years. A high risk for infective endocarditis (IE) was found in 42 patients (78%), including 14 (26%) previous histories of IE, and 32 (59%) histories of valvular cardiac surgery. The aortic valve was the most frequently affected (n = 36, 67%). Combination therapy was mainly amoxicillin-ceftriaxone during all the curative antibiotic therapy duration (n = 31, 57%). Surgery was indicated for 40 patients (74%), but only 27 (50%) were operated on, mainly due to their frailty. Among the 17 deaths (32%), six (11%) happened during the first hospitalization for EE. A suppressive antibiotic treatment was initiated in 15 (29%) patients, mostly because of not performing surgery. During the 6-year study period an EE relapse occurred in three (6%) patients.

Conclusions: EE is a worrying disease associated with a high risk of relapse and significant mortality. Suppressive antibiotic therapy could be a key treatment to limit the occurrence of relapses.