Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in the older population in Japan: Impacts on activities of daily living and medical costs

Glob Health Med. 2024 Feb 29;6(1):77-82. doi: 10.35772/ghm.2023.01122.


This study aimed to investigate differences in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), at admission and discharge, as well as the medical costs of pyelonephritis in older adults in Japan. Patients hospitalized for pyelonephritis between January 1, 2013 and March 31, 2019, were retrospectively enrolled. The inclusion criteria were urine culture within 48 h of admission with > 104 colony-forming units/mL of Escherichia coli and symptoms of pyelonephritis. Patients were divided into Young (20-64 years), Pre-old (65-74 years), Old (75-84 years), and Super-old (≥ 85 years). ADL and medical costs were compared. Finally, 393 patients were included: 112 (28.5%) were Young, 72 (18.3%) were Pre-old, 130 (33.1 %) were Old, and 79 (20.1%) were Super-old between January 1, 2013, and March 31, 2019. The median differences between Barthel Index (BI) scores, which indicates ADL, at admission and discharge were 0, 0, 25, and 23 in each age group, respectively (p < 0.001). No significant differences existed between the groups aged ≥ 65. Median medical costs were $3,368, $4,894, $5,372, and $6,078 for each age group, respectively (p < 0.001). Medical costs per day did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.163). Pyelonephritis due to E. coli in patients aged ≥ 75 is associated with a decline in ADL, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs compared to that in young patients. Pre-old patients did not have lower ADL; however, they tended to have longer hospital stays and higher medical costs.

Keywords: ageing; cost analysis; urinary tract infections.