Changing the polyphenol composition and enhancing the enzyme activity of sorghum grain by solid-state fermentation with different microbial strains

J Sci Food Agric. 2024 Aug 15;104(10):6186-6195. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.13454. Epub 2024 Mar 26.


Background: Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been widely used in the processing of sorghum grain (SG) because it can produce products with improved sensory characteristics. To clarify the influence of different microbial strains on the SSF of SG, especially on the polyphenols content and composition, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus oryzae, and Neurospora sitophila were used separately and together for SSF of SG. Furthermore, the relationship between the dynamic changes in polyphenols and enzyme activity closely related to the metabolism of polyphenols has also been measured and analyzed. Microstructural changes observed after SSF provide a visual representation of the SSF on the SG.

Results: After SSF, tannin content (TC) and free phenolic content (FPC) were decreased by 56.36% and 23.48%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, β-glucosidase and cellulase activities were increased 5.25, 3.27, and 45.57 times, respectively. TC and FPC were negatively correlated with cellulase activity. A positive correlation between FPC and xylanase activity after 30 h SSF became negative after 48 h SSF. The SG surface was fragmented and porous, reducing the blocking effect of cortex.

Conclusion: Cellulase played a crucial role in promoting the degradation of tannin (antinutrient) and phenolic compounds. Xylanase continued to release flavonoids while microbial metabolism consumed them with the extension of SSF time. SSF is an effective way to improve the bioactivity and processing characteristics of SG. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: enzyme activity; microstructure; polyphenols; solid‐state fermentation; sorghum.

MeSH terms

  • Aspergillus oryzae / enzymology
  • Aspergillus oryzae / metabolism
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Catechol Oxidase* / metabolism
  • Cellulase / chemistry
  • Cellulase / metabolism
  • Fermentation*
  • Food Handling / methods
  • Neurospora / metabolism
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / metabolism
  • Polyphenols* / chemistry
  • Polyphenols* / metabolism
  • Rhizopus / enzymology
  • Rhizopus / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / metabolism
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Seeds / microbiology
  • Sorghum* / chemistry
  • Sorghum* / metabolism
  • Tannins / analysis
  • Tannins / chemistry
  • Tannins / metabolism
  • beta-Glucosidase / metabolism


  • Polyphenols
  • Catechol Oxidase
  • Tannins
  • Cellulase
  • beta-Glucosidase
  • Phenols