Integration of pan-omics technologies and three-dimensional in vitro tumor models: an approach toward drug discovery and precision medicine

Mol Cancer. 2024 Mar 9;23(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12943-023-01916-6.


Despite advancements in treatment protocols, cancer is one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Therefore, there is a need to identify newer and personalized therapeutic targets along with screening technologies to combat cancer. With the advent of pan-omics technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics, the scientific community has witnessed an improved molecular and metabolomic understanding of various diseases, including cancer. In addition, three-dimensional (3-D) disease models have been efficiently utilized for understanding disease pathophysiology and as screening tools in drug discovery. An integrated approach utilizing pan-omics technologies and 3-D in vitro tumor models has led to improved understanding of the intricate network encompassing various signalling pathways and molecular cross-talk in solid tumors. In the present review, we underscore the current trends in omics technologies and highlight their role in understanding genotypic-phenotypic co-relation in cancer with respect to 3-D in vitro tumor models. We further discuss the challenges associated with omics technologies and provide our outlook on the future applications of these technologies in drug discovery and precision medicine for improved management of cancer.

Keywords: 3-D in vitro tumor models; Genomics; Lipidomics; Multi-omics; Patient-derived organoids; Precision medicine; Transcriptomics.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Drug Discovery
  • Genomics / methods
  • Humans
  • Metabolomics / methods
  • Multiomics*
  • Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Precision Medicine / methods