Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Relation to SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Individuals Living with Diabetes During the Second Wave of COVID-19

Diabet Epidemiol Manag. 2024 Jan-Mar:13:100194. doi: 10.1016/j.deman.2023.100194. Epub 2023 Dec 15.


Aims: The objective was to compare anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in individuals living with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes with matched controls during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Via randomization, individuals living with diabetes T1D (n= 203) and T2D (n=413), were identified during February-July 2021 through health-care registers. Population controls (n=282) were matched for age, gender, and residential area. Questionnaires included self-assessment of anxiety, depression, QoL, and demographics in relation to SARS-CoV-2 exposure.Blood was collected through home-capillary sampling, and SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (NCP) and Spike antibodies (SC2_S1) were determined by multiplex Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) assays.

Results: Younger age and health issues were related to anxiety, depression, and QoL, with no differences between the study groups. Female gender was associated with anxiety, while obesity was associated with lower QoL.The SARS-CoV-2 NCP seroprevalence was higher in T1D (8.9%) compared to T2D (3.9%) and controls (4.0%), while the SARS-CoV-2 SC2_S1 seroprevalence was higher for controls (25.5%) compared to T1D (16.8%) and T2D (14.0%).

Conclusions: A higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in T1D may be explained by younger age and higher employment rate, and the associated increased risk for viral exposure.

Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetes; SARS-CoV-2; anxiety; depression; quality of life; virus antibodies.