Alternate Electrode Placements to Facilitate Frontal Electroencephalography Monitoring in Anesthetized and Critically Ill Patients

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2024 Mar 11. doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000955. Online ahead of print.


Background: Frontal electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring can be useful in guiding the titration of anesthetics, but it is not always feasible to place electrodes in the standard configuration in some circumstances, including during neurosurgery. This study compares 5 alternate configurations of the Masimo Sedline Sensor.

Methods: Ten stably sedated patients in the intensive care unit were recruited. Frontal EEG was monitored in the standard configuration (bifrontal upright) and 5 alternate configurations: bifrontal inverse, infraorbital, lateral upright, lateral inverse, and semilateral. Average power spectral densities (PSDs) with 95% CIs in the alternate configurations were compared to PSDs in the standard configuration. Two-one-sided-testing with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests assessed equivalence in the spectral edge frequency (SEF-95), EEG power, and relative delta (0.5 to 3.5 Hz), alpha (8 to 12 Hz), and beta (20 to 30 Hz) power between each alternate and standard configurations.

Results: After the removal of unanalyzable tracings, 7 patients were included for analysis in the infraorbital configuration and 9 in all other configurations. In the lateral upright and lateral inverse configurations, PSDs significantly differed from the standard configuration within the 15 to 20 Hz band. The greatest decrease in EEG power was in the lateral inverse configuration (median: -97 dB; IQR: -130, -62 dB). The largest change in frequency distribution of EEG power was in the infraorbital configuration; median SEF-95 change of -1.4 Hz (IQR: -2.8, 0.7 Hz), median relative delta power change of +7.3% (IQR: 1.4%, 7.9%), and median relative alpha power change of -0.6% (IQR: -5.7%, 0.0%).

Conclusions: These 5 alternate Sedline electrode configurations are suitable options for monitoring frontal EEG when the standard configuration is not possible.