Update on imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology: the European Society of Paediatric Radiology workgroup session on voiding cystourethrography

Pediatr Radiol. 2024 Apr;54(4):606-619. doi: 10.1007/s00247-024-05883-y. Epub 2024 Mar 11.


Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a fluoroscopic technique that allows the assessment of the urinary tract, including the urethra, bladder, and-if vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is present-the ureters and the pelvicalyceal systems. The technique also allows for the assessment of bladder filling and emptying, providing information on anatomical and functional aspects. VCUG is, together with contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (VUS), still the gold standard test to diagnose VUR and it is one of the most performed fluoroscopic examinations in pediatric radiology departments. VCUG is also considered a follow-up examination after urinary tract surgery, and one of the most sensitive techniques for studying anatomy of the lower genitourinary tract in suspected anatomical malformations. The international reflux study in 1985 published the first reflux-protocol and graded VUR into five classes; over the following years, other papers have been published on this topic. In 2008, the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) Uroradiology Task Force published the first proposed VCUG Guidelines with internal scientific society agreement. The purpose of our work is to create a detailed overview of VCUG indications, procedural recommendations, and to provide a structured final report, with the aim of updating the 2008 VCUG paper proposed by the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We have also compared VCUG with contrast-enhanced VUS as an emergent alternative. As a result of this work, the ESPR Urogenital Task Force strongly recommends the use of contrast-enhanced VUS as a non-radiating imaging technique whenever indicated and possible.

Keywords: Children; Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography; Pelvicalyceal dilatation; Structured report; Urinary tract infection; Vesicoureteral reflux; Voiding cystourethrography.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Contrast Media
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Radiology*
  • Ultrasonography / methods
  • Urethra / diagnostic imaging
  • Urinary Bladder / diagnostic imaging
  • Urination
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / diagnostic imaging


  • Contrast Media